Calculous prostatitis is a complication of a chronic inflammatory process in the prostate gland. With this disease, calculus is formed in the excretory ducts of the prostate and acini. As a result of the development of the pathological process, the patient's urge to urinate becomes more frequent, pains occur in the perineum and lower abdomen, and an erection is impaired. You should not run the course of this disease, as it can ultimately lead to a number of health problems.
What is calculous prostatitis
This disease is a form of chronic prostatitis. The disease is characterized by the formation of prostatolites or calculi, being one of the most frequent consequences of a protracted inflammatory process observed in the prostate gland.
Stones in the prostate are most often detected during a routine examination in about 9% of men of different ages.
There are three age peaks in the incidence of this form of prostatitis:
- 30-39 years old. As a rule, the disease is not detected in patients under the age of 30. However, the disease is gradually getting younger. In persons in this age range, the development of calculous prostatitis is associated with a long course of chronic prostatitis caused by gonorrhea, chlamydia, ureaplasmosis or mycoplasmosis.
- 40-59 years old. In men of this age group, the disease most often causes prostate adenoma.
- Over 60 years old. In this case, calculous prostatitis most often develops against the background of the extinction of sexual function.
Causes and risk factors
The formation of stones in the prostate gland can be due to two types of reasons:
- True or primary, which are characterized by the direct development of the disease in the ducts of the gland or acini.
- Secondary or false, in which there is a migration of calculi from the upper urinary tract. Most often, the place of their formation is the bladder, kidneys or urethra. The reason for the development of calculous prostatitis may be urolithiasis.
Depending on the nature of the onset of the disease, the reasons for its development are divided into two groups:
- Exogenous. In this case, we are talking about those factors that do not relate to the work of the body, but act on it from the outside. This includes drug addiction, smoking, or alcohol abuse.
- Endogenous. Concrements occur against the background of any disturbances in the functioning of the body. We are talking about organ injuries or complications after surgery. Bacterial damage to the prostate is also related to these factors.
Alcohol abuse can trigger the development of calculous prostatitis in men.
Calculous prostatitis usually develops against the background of stagnant, inflammatory changes in the prostate. Such processes arise due to insufficient emptying of the prostatic glands, therefore the following factors are the main causes of the disease:
- lack of regular sex life;
- the predominance of a sedentary lifestyle;
- replacing sex with masturbation;
- bad habits, such as alcoholism or smoking;
- inflammatory processes of the prostate gland caused by the penetration of microbes into the organ.
Experts distinguish between two main pathological mechanisms leading to the formation of stones in the organ and its ducts:
- Violation of the secretory function, as a result of which a significant stagnation of the secretion of the prostate is formed.
- Throwing urine into the cavity of the prostate gland. This can occur against the background of improper functioning of the genitourinary system, the formation of fistulas and the influence of a number of other negative factors.
Signs of calculous prostatitis are in many ways similar to the development of chronic inflammation of the prostate gland, but they are more pronounced. Most patients with diagnosed prostatitis of this form complain of difficulty and pain during urination.
The difference from chronic prostatitis in this case is the pain present in the patient around the clock, and not only at night. The reason for such a clinical picture is most often the disturbed process of the outflow of urine and prostate secretions. This is due to the complete or partial obstruction of the duct with a stone.
A number of other symptoms of the disease should also be highlighted:
- The presence of pain in the pelvis and perineum. Moreover, they can manifest themselves not only during urination. Patients have unpleasant sensations in the tailbone and lower abdomen, which do not depend on the specific time of day.
- Pathological impurities appear in the semen. Often, bloody discharge is found in it, and only in extreme cases can pus be present.
- Soreness of urination against the background of frequent false desires. In most patients, very little urine is excreted. However, it may be completely absent.
- Erectile dysfunction. Due to the fact that the duct of the prostate gland is blocked, the normal outflow of seminal fluid from the organ is disrupted. All this leads to the impossibility of completing intercourse.
In the most severe cases of the development of the disease, the patient may completely lack an erection and significantly decrease libido.
Magnetic resonance imaging gives good results for accurately identifying the disease.
Before treating calculous prostatitis, the patient must be carefully examined. The urologist is engaged in the diagnosis of this disease. He is obliged to make a preliminary diagnosis based on the patient's complaints, as well as the subsequent physical and instrumental examination. It includes the following procedures:
- Digital rectal examination of the prostate gland. It is carried out by palpation. In the presence of calculous prostatitis, the patient has a kind of crepitus and a bumpy surface of calculi.
- Transrectal ultrasound of the prostate. Through this procedure, stones are identified that have the appearance of hyperechoic formations with a clearly visible acoustic path. The number of such formations, their size, localization and structure are studied.
- Survey urography. The procedure allows you to identify the presence of prostalitis.
- MRI and CT of the prostate. These techniques are highly effective and are used to confirm the results of previous studies.
As additional procedures are used: urethrography, pyelography and cystography.
In addition to instrumental techniques, the diagnosis of calculous prostatitis includes laboratory tests, which include the following procedures:
- Study of the secretion of the prostate.
- Analysis for bacteriological culture of urine and material from the urethra.
- PCR study, during which a scraping is taken, studied for the presence of genital infections.
- Blood tests. Most often, a biochemical analysis is given.
- Analysis of urine.
- Analysis of semen for biochemistry.
- Bacteriological seeding of ejaculate.
If we are talking about conducting differential diagnostics, then its task is to differentiate calculous prostatitis from tuberculosis, prostate adenoma, prostate oncology, as well as various types of prostatitis.
How to cure calculous prostatitis? Therapy for calculous prostatitis is prescribed by a doctor based on a thorough diagnosis. Depending on the degree of development of the disease, several treatment options are possible. Let's consider each of them in more detail.
The course of treatment is prescribed by the doctor strictly individually.
Treatment of chronic calculous prostatitis with pills can last from one to three months. This type of therapy is aimed primarily at achieving stable remission and preventing complications of the disease.
Regardless of the cause of the disease, the patient is prescribed antibacterial drugs. Antibiotics are prescribed based on the results of the analysis of urethral secretion and urine culture.
The most common remedies used in the treatment of calculous prostatitis are:
- Fluoroquinolones. This is the most effective group of antibiotics used in the treatment of calculous prostatitis. However, these funds can be used only after the presence of tuberculosis has been completely excluded.
- Tetracyclines. They are used less often, since they often provoke the occurrence of side effects.
- Penicillins. Classic antibiotics that have a wide range of effects on pathogenic microflora.
To enhance the effect of drug therapy and improve the functioning of the prostate, the following physiotherapy techniques are used:
- Magnetotherapy. It is used to eliminate edema and normalize the blood circulation process.
- Laser therapy. Eliminates pain syndrome and helps to reduce the inflammatory process.
- Prostate massage. Allows you to restore the patency of the ducts, improving blood circulation in the prostate gland.
In some cases, the treatment of calculous prostatitis requires a radical approach. In this case, various surgical techniques are used, the most popular of which is prostatectomy.
Sport is the best prevention of calculous prostatitis.
If the patient is not provided with timely treatment, the patient may develop chronic calculous prostatitis. This can be fraught with the following dangerous complications:
- the development of an abscess;
- fibrosis of the prostate;
- problems with potency;
- urinary incontinence;
- various forms of vesiculitis.
Therefore, it is very important to timely identify calculous prostatitis and start treating it. As a prophylaxis of this disease, one should give up alcohol and smoking, play sports, treat infections on time and prevent hypothermia of the body.