Inflammation of the prostate gland, unfortunately, is a fairly common ailment. According to statistics almost half of men in some age experience this problem. The causes of inflammation may be different, but because in modern medicine there are several types of this disease. One of them is bacterial prostatitis.
Due to such a large spread of illness many men are interested in more information about him. What are the causes of bacterial inflammation? What symptoms should pay attention to? What modern methods of treatment are most effective?
What is prostatitis? The main forms of the disease
Before considering the question of what is bacterial prostatitis, is to understand, what is a prostate gland, or prostate. This is a small organ that is part of the reproductive system. It is located slightly below the bladder, around the urethra. The prostate produces up to 70 percent of the seminal fluid, which is then mixed with sperm that is produced in the testes. Prostate gland also plays a role in the process of release of sperm and maintains erection. It also affects the retention of urine.
Prostatitis — a disease which is accompanied by an inflammatory process in the prostate tissue. Depending on the reasons for the development in modern medicine there are several major types of illness:
- acute bacterial prostatitis — an inflammation in this case develops due to infection with organ specific bacteria (e.g., chlamydia, gonorrhea, etc.);
- the chronic form of bacterial prostatitis usually develops on the background of improper care or its absence (illness lasts more than three months, a period of prosperity gives way to exacerbations of inflammatory process);
- nonspecific prostatitis is the inflammatory process in this disease is caused by the activation of conditionally pathogenic microflora, or is not associated with bacterial infection;
- asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis occurs without obvious symptoms, and quite often, the inflammatory process of decay itself.
Causes of bacterial prostatitis
As the name suggests, an inflammatory process in this case is associated with the activity of bacterial microorganisms. The pathogens of bacterial prostatitis quite often penetrate into the tissue of the prostate when the patient has sexually transmitted infections. Virtually any sexually transmitted diseases (e.g. gonorrhoea, chlamydia) can lead to inflammation of the prostate.
The middle-aged men as the causative agent can act and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli. A slightly different pattern is observed in elderly patients. The fact that many men older than 50 years diagnosed with so-called benign prostatic hyperplasia (accompanied by tissue growth). When this pathology of the evacuation of secretory fluid from the prostate is hampered, causing it begins to accumulate within the gland. The stagnation of secretions leads to active reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms and, consequently, inflammation.
Bacterial prostatitis may develop on the background of different pathologies of the urogenital system. For example, inflammation is much more frequently diagnosed on the background of obstruction of the bladder, urinary tract infection, epididymitis, urethritis. The dissemination and penetration of infection inside it promotes phimosis (foreskin splicing). Trigger an inflammation of the prostate can various injuries of the perineum, the installation of a urinary catheter, previously performed cystoscopy (internal examination of the bladder) or a biopsy.
Are there risk factors?
As you can see, the causes of inflammation of the prostate may be different. In addition, there is a group of so-called risk factors, the presence of which increases the likelihood of both acute and chronic prostatitis:
- frequent infectious diseases of the genitourinary system;
- parasitic diseases;
- incomplete emptying of the bladder;
- genetic predisposition;
- irritation of the urinary canal aggressive chemicals;
- severe hypothermia;
- promiscuous (frequent change of sexual partners, intercourse without a condom);
- Smoking, use of drugs and alcohol (weakens protective forces of an organism);
- a weakened immune system;
- long periods of sexual abstinence;
- severe dehydration of the body;
- the wrong food;
- neurological diseases urinary tract;
- constant stress, nervous exhaustion, emotional stress;
- a sedentary lifestyle that leads to stagnation of blood in the pelvis (increasing the probability of inflammation, not only prostate, but also some other nearby organs).
What symptoms accompany the disease?
Signs of bacterial prostatitis, as a rule, quite characteristic. The disease begins acutely and develops quickly. Often patients first note of the increase in body temperature, weakness, body aches, fatigue, muscle pain, nausea and vomiting.
Along with this there are problems with the urinary system. The process of urination becomes difficult and painful, urge - more frequent. However, the bladder is not completely emptied. Stream when urinating becomes weak, the urine acquires a rather unpleasant smell. Also, it can be a small amount of impurities in the blood. It may cause soreness and burning in the urethra.
Patients often note and other symptoms of bacterial prostatitis. In particular, there is pain in the pubic area, which also gives to the lower back. You may experience soreness in the testicles and the perineum area. Men have problems with erection and ejaculation is accompanied by painful sensations. Sometimes in semen can be seen traces of blood. Also present pain during bowel movements.
Noticing such symptoms you should immediately consult a doctor. The sooner the patient will receive adequate medical care, the less the probability of transition of the disease into a chronic form.
Chronic bacterial prostatitis
Immediately it is worth noting that this form of the disease is quite rare. Chronic bacterial prostatitis may be associated with the activity of bacteria that are protected from the effects of drugs, as it is located deep in the tissues of the prostate. Furthermore, some microorganisms become insensitive to antibiotics, a wide range of impacts.
Exacerbation of chronic bacterial prostatitis is accompanied by almost the same symptoms as the acute form of the disease. Observed pain when urinating, pain in the abdomen and the perineum, blood in urine and semen. On the other hand, temperature increase and other signs of intoxication are rare. Exacerbation followed by a period of relative prosperity — the man feels well, but some irregularities in the urogenital system still exist. In particular, patients suffer from urge to urinate. Also have problems with an erection (sometimes to the point of serious erectile dysfunction) and decreased sex drive.
Diagnosis of the disease
For a start, the doctor performs a physical examination and collecting a medical history, in order to obtain a complete picture of the symptoms that are bothering the patient. Usually this is enough to suspect prostatitis and order additional tests.
The patient passes blood and urine samples, analysis of which helps to detect the markers of inflammation. You also need a digital rectal examination of the prostate gland, which makes possible the doctor determine the size, outline, consistency, body, degree of pain and some other parameters. In addition, during massage the prostate to obtain samples of her secret, which is then sent to a laboratory for analysis. Seeding of samples helps to determine type of infection and the degree of sensitivity to certain drugs.
Further examination shall be conducted only if there is suspicion of the presence of complications. With cystoscopy, the doctor can inspect and assess the condition of the urinary canal and bladder. Sometimes performs urodynamic tests. Transrectal ultrasound and computed tomography help to better understand the condition of the prostate, to detect the presence of abscesses or stones. For suspected malignant degeneration of cells biopsy of the prostate.
Drug treatment of prostatitis
After conducting a full examination, the doctor will be able to make the most effective scheme of therapy. As a rule, in the first place, treatment of bacterial prostatitis with antibiotics. In particular, very effective antibacterial agents are the drugs containing tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. Depending on the severity of the disease and the variety of infection antibiotic therapy can last from four to six weeks. Sometimes in the first few days the medication is injected, and then move to form tablets. In the form of chronic inflammation of treatment can last up to 12 weeks.
Used other drugs for the treatment of bacterial prostatitis. In particular, to facilitate the patient's condition can antispasmodics to help relax the bladder neck and reduce pain during urination.
If necessary, the patient is prescribed painkillers drugs, namely nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents that help to remove the fever. Positively on the state of men will be affected by taking multivitamin complexes, immunomodulators, biostimulants.
During the recovery phase patients often recommend a prostate massage. This procedure helps to eliminate fluid retention, improve tissue metabolism, enhance local immunity, restore drainage function of prostate and improve the flow of blood.
Also in the process of treatment can be used various methods of physiotherapy, in particular:
- magnetic therapy;
- transrectal ultrasonic therapy;
- electrical stimulation.
All the above methods help to normalize blood circulation and eliminate stagnant processes.
When surgical intervention is necessary?
Surgery is an extreme measure. It applies only in the case of long-term medical therapy and other treatments have no effect. Surgical procedure for partial resection of the prostate is, as a rule, older patients. At a young age such a radical treatment to try to avoid, as it sometimes leads to impotence and infertility. Surgery is most often prescribed to elderly patients with chronic forms of prostatitis, because they have many years to suffer from problems with urination and constant pain. Additionally, it is the plastic correction, which helps to restore the special way to normalize the bladder.
Alternative ways to treat the disease
Of course, there are some other less conventional treatments for prostatitis. For example, sometimes a good effect gives medicinal microclysters, treatment with leeches, acupuncture, massage.
Patients with chronic forms of the disease recommend the Spa treatment. Also positively on the state of the organism will affect the special physical exercises that will help to restore circulation and eliminate blood stasis in the pelvic organs.
How to treat bacterial prostatitis using folk remedies? Today there are many means to eliminate the inflammatory process. In particular, it is positive on the condition of the pelvic organs sometimes affected warm sitz baths decoction of yarrow, horsetail, sage. Also offers special rectal suppositories of bee products and medicinal herbs.
In any case, it is worth remembering that before using any tools be sure to consult your doctor.
What is the Outlook for patients?
Does the treatment of bacterial prostatitis in men to achieve good results? Immediately is to say that the success of the therapy will depend on many factors, including the stage and form of disease, patient age, presence of comorbidities, etc.
Acute bacterial prostatitis responds well to medical treatment. After only a few days after the start of therapy the patient noted improvement of health. On the other hand, the incorrect treatment, the absence or termination (for example, quite often men stop taking medication when symptoms disappear, not finishing the full course) can lead to the development of chronic forms of the disease.
Chronic prostatitis — a disease which is much more difficult to treat. Relapses can happen again and again. In such cases, doctors often recommend patients surgery. The results of surgical treatment, as a rule, positive. Again, sometimes surgery is fraught with a not too pleasant consequences.